Appendix A List of Acronyms

AAA

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

ACE

Access Control Entry

ACK

Acknowledgement

ACL

Access Control List

AP

Access Point

API

Application Programming Interface

CIS

Center for Internet Security

CMS

Cryptographic Message Syntax

CoAP

Constrained Application Protocol

COBIT

Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology

CRADA

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement

DACL

Dynamic Access Control List

DB

Database

DDoS

Distributed Denial of Service

Devkit

Development Kit

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DNS

Domain Name System

DVR

Digital Video Recorder

FIPS

Federal Information Processing Standard

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

GCA

Global Cyber Alliance

GUI

Graphical User Interface

http

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

https

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

IOS

Cisco’s Internetwork Operating System

IoT

Internet of Things

IP

Internet Protocol

IPv4

Internet Protocol Version 4

IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6

ISA

International Society of Automation

ISO/IEC

International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission

ISP

Internet Service Provider

IT

Information Technology

ITL

National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Information Technology Laboratory

JSON

JavaScript Object Notation

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LED

Light-Emitting Diode

LLDP

Link Layer Discovery Protocol (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.1AB)

MAC

Media Access Control

MQTT

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport

MSO

Multiple System Operators

MUD

Manufacturer Usage Description

NAT

Network Address Translation

NCCoE

National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NISTIR

NIST Interagency or Internal Report

NTP

Network Time Protocol

OS

Operating System

PEP

Policy Enforcement Point

PoE

Power over Ethernet

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service

REST

Representational State Transfer

RFC

Request for Comments

RMF

Risk Management Framework

SDN

Software Defined Networking

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

SP

Special Publication

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TLS

Transport Layer Security

TLV

Type Length Value

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

VPN

Virtual Private Network

WAN

Wide Area Network

WPA3

Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 Security Certificate protocol

YANG

Yet Another Next Generation

Appendix B Glossary

Audit

Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures (National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-12 Rev. 1)

Best Practice

A procedure that has been shown by research and experience to produce optimal results and that is established or proposed as a standard suitable for widespread adoption (Merriam-Webster)

Botnet

The word “botnet” is formed from the words “robot” and ”network.” Cyber criminals use special Trojan viruses to breach the security of several users’ computers, take control of each computer, and organize all the infected machines into a network of “bots” that the criminal can remotely manage. (https://usa.kaspersky.com/resource-center/threats/botnet-attacks)

Control

A measure that is modifying risk (Note: Controls include any process, policy, device, practice, or other actions that modify risk.) (NIST Interagency or Internal Report [NISTIR] 8053)

Denial of Service

The prevention of authorized access to a system resource or the delaying of system operations and functions (NIST SP 800-82 Rev. 2)

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

A denial of service technique that uses numerous hosts to perform the attack (NISTIR 7711)

Managed Devices

Personal computers, laptops, mobile devices, virtual machines, and infrastructure components require management agents, allowing information technology staff to discover, maintain, and control them. Those with broken or missing agents cannot be seen or managed by agent-based security products.

Mapping

Depiction of how data from one information source maps to data from another information source

Mitigate

To make less severe or painful or to cause to become less harsh or hostile (Merriam-Webster)

Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD)

A component-based architecture specified in Request for Comments (RFC) 8250 that is designed to provide a means for end devices to signal to the network what sort of access and network functionality they require to properly function

MUD-Capable

An Internet of Things (IoT) device that can emit a MUD uniform resource locator in compliance with the MUD specification

Network Address Translation (NAT)

A function by which internet protocol addresses within a packet are replaced with different IP addresses. This function is most commonly performed by either routers or firewalls. It enables private IP networks that use unregistered IP addresses to connect to the internet. NAT operates on a router, usually connecting two networks together, and translates the private (not globally unique) addresses in the internal network into legal addresses before packets are forwarded to another network.

Non-MUD-Capable

An IoT device that is not capable of emitting a MUD URL in compliance with the MUD specification (RFC 8250)

Onboarding

The process by which a device obtains the credentials (e.g., network SSID and password) that it needs in order to gain access to a wired or wireless network

Operationalization

Putting MUD implementations into operational service in a manner that is both practical and effective

Policy

Statements, rules, or assertions that specify the correct or expected behavior of an entity. For example, an authorization policy might specify the correct access control rules for a software component. (NIST SP 800-95 and NISTIR 7621 Rev. 1)

Policy Enforcement Point

A network device on which policy decisions are carried out or enforced

Risk

The net negative impact of the exercise of a vulnerability, considering both the probability and the impact of occurrence. Risk management is the process of identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to reduce risk to an acceptable level. (NIST SP 800-30)

Router

A computer that is a gateway between two networks at open system interconnection layer 3 and that relays and directs data packets through that internetwork. The most common form of router operates on IP packets (NIST SP 800-82 Rev. 2)

Server

A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. Examples include file servers (to store files), print servers (to manage one or more printers), network servers (to manage network traffic), and database servers (to process database queries). (NIST SP 800-47)

Security Control

A safeguard or countermeasure prescribed for an information system or an organization designed to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of its information and to meet a set of defined security requirements (NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 4)

Shall

A requirement that must be met unless a justification of why it cannot be met is given and accepted (NISTIR 5153)

Should

This term is used to indicate an important recommendation. Ignoring the recommendation could result in undesirable results. (NIST SP 800-108)

Threat

Any circumstance or event with the potential to adversely impact organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, or individuals through an information system via unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, modification of information, and/or denial of service. Also, the potential for a threat-source to successfully exploit a particular information system vulnerability (Federal Information Processing Standards 200)

Threat Signaling

Real-time signaling of DDoS-related telemetry and threat-handling requests and data between elements concerned with DDoS attack detection, classification, trace back, and mitigation (https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/collection/rolling-plan-ict-standardisation/cybersecurity-network-and-information-security)

Traffic Filter

An entry in an access control list that is installed on the router or switch to enforce access controls on the network

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

A reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A typical URL could have the form http://www.example.com/index.html, which indicates a protocol (http), a host name (www.example.com), and a file name (index.html). Also sometimes referred to as a web address.

Update

New, improved, or fixed software, which replaces older versions of the same software. For example, updating an operating system brings it up-to-date with the latest drivers, system utilities, and security software. The software publisher often provides updates free of charge. (https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/u/update.htm)

Update Server

A server that provides patches and other software updates to IoT devices

VLAN

A broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated within a network at the data link layer. A single physical local area network (LAN) can be logically partitioned into multiple, independent VLANs; a group of devices on one or more physical LANs can be configured to communicate within the same VLAN, as if they were attached to the same physical LAN.

Vulnerability

Weakness in an information system, system security procedures, internal controls, or implementation that could be exploited or triggered by a threat source (NIST SP 800-37 Rev. 2)

Appendix C Bibliography

FIDO Alliance. Specifications Overview [Website]. Available: https://fidoalliance.org/specifications/overview/.

Internet-Draft draft-srich-opsawg-mud-manu-lifecycle-01. (2017, Mar.) “MUD Lifecyle: A Manufacturer’s Perspective” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-srich-opsawg-mud-manu-lifecycle-01.

Internet-Draft draft-srich-opsawg-mud-net-lifecycle-01. (2017, Sept.) “MUD Lifecyle: A Network Operatorʼs Perspective” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-srich-opsawg-mud-net-lifecycle-01.

Internet Policy Task Force, National Telecommunications Information Administration. Multistakeholder Working Group for Secure Update of IoT Devices [Website]. Available: https://www.ntia.doc.gov/category/internet-things.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2018, Apr.) Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity, Version 1.1 [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/CSWP/NIST.CSWP.04162018.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Draft Interagency or Internal Report 7823. (2012, Jul.) Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/nistir-7823/draft_nistir- 7823.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interagency or Internal Report 8228. (2018, Sept.) Considerations for Managing Internet of Things (IoT) Cybersecurity and Privacy Risks [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8228.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST Computer Security Resource Center Risk Management Framework guidance [Website]. Available: https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/risk-management/risk-management-framework-quick-start-guides.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-30. (2002, Jul.) Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-30r1.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-30 Revision 1. (2012, Sept.) Guide for Conducting Risk Assessments [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/legacy/sp/nistspecialpublication800-30r1.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-37 Revision 2. (2018, Dec.) Risk Management Framework for Information Systems and Organizations [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-37r2.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-40 Rev. 3. (2013, Jul.) Guide to Enterprise Patch Management Technologies [Online]. Available: https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-40/rev-3/final.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-52 Revision 2. (2019, Aug.) Guidelines for the Selection, Configuration, and Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) Implementations [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-52r2.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Draft Special Publication (SP) 800-53 Rev. 5. (2017, Aug.) Security and Privacy Controls for Information Systems and Organizations (Draft) [Online]. Available: https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-53/rev-5/draft.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-57 Part 1 Revision 4. (2016, Jan.) Recommendation for Key Management [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-57pt1r4.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-63-3. (2017, Jun.) Digital Identity Guidelines [Online]. Available: https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-63/3/final.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-63-B. (2017, Jun.) Digital Identity Guidelines: Authentication and Lifecycle Management [Online]. Available: https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-63b/final.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-147. (2011, Apr.) BIOS Protection Guidelines [Online]. Available: https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-147/final.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-147B. (2014, Aug.) BIOS Protection Guidelines for Servers [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-147B.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-193. (2018, May.) Platform Firmware Resiliency Guidelines [Online]. Available: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-193.pdf.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130 Revised. (2016, Jul.) Managing Information as a Strategic Resource [Online]. Available: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/omb/circulars_a130_a130trans4/.

Request for Comments (RFC) 2131. (1997, Mar.) “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2131.

Request for Comments (RFC) 2818. (2000, May.) “HTTP Over TLS” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2818.

Request for Comments (RFC) 5280. (2008, May.) “Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280.

Request for Comments (RFC) 5652. (2009, Sept.) “Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5652.

Request for Comments (RFC) 6020. (2010, Oct.) “YANG—A Data Modeling Language for the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6020.

Request for Comments (RFC) 8520. (2019, Mar.). “Manufacturer Usage Description Specification” [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8520.

SANS Institute. CWE/SANS Top 25 Most Dangerous Software Errors [Website]. Available: https://www.sans.org/top25-software-errors/.

Wi-Fi Alliance. DRAFT Device Provisioning Protocol Specification Version 1.2, 2020. Available: https://www.wi-fi.org/file/device-provisioning-protocol-draft-specification.